Country Specific



De Oliveira, J. A. P., & Ali, S. H. (2011). Gemstone mining as a development cluster: A study of Brazil’s emerald mines. Resources Policy36(2), 132-141. Link to Article

de Brito Barreto, S., & Bittar, S. M. B. (2010). The gemstone deposits of Brazil: occurrences, production and economic impact. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana62(1). Link to Report


Brazeal, B. (2014). The history of emerald mining in Colombia: An examination of Spanish-language sources. The Extractive Industries and Society1(2), 273-283. Link to Article


Anyona, S., & Rop, B. (2015, May). The Proposed Gemstone Centre and its Likely Impacts on Small Scale Mining Industry in Taita Taveta County. In Proceedings of Sustainable Research and Innovation Conference (pp. 98-108). Link to Article

Anyona, S, & Rop, B. (2015). The Character and Profile of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gemstone Mining Community in Taita Taveta County, Kenya. Proceedings Of Sustainable Research And Innovation Conference, 0, 109-125. Link to Article

Simonet, C., Okundi, S., & Masai, P. (2000, November). General setting of coloured gemstone deposits in the Mozambique Belt of Kenya—preliminary considerations. In Proc. 9th Conf. Geol. Soc. Kenya, Nairobi (pp. 123-138).  Link to Article

Myanmar (Burma)

NRGI (2017). Governing the Gemstone Sector: Considerations for Myanmar, 11p. Link to Report

Cartier, L.E., (2016). The Legendary Gem Mines of Mogok Myanmar (Burma): Is Responsible Sourcing Possible Beyond Sanctions?. National Geographic Blog. Link to Article


MITSMED (2017). Growth Strategy for the Namibian Jewellery Industry and Coloured Gemstone and Associated Value Chains, 60pp. Link to Report


Lahiri-Dutt, K., & Brown, H. (2017). Governing the ungovernable? Reflections on informal gemstone mining in high-altitude borderlands of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Local Environment, 1-16. Link to Article

Sri Lanka

National Gem & Jewellery Authority of Sri Lanka (NGJA).

Lucas, A., Sammoon, A., Jayarajah, A. P., Hsu, T., & Padua, P. (2014). SRI LANKA: EXPEDITION TO THE ISLAND OF JEWELS. Gems & Gemology50(3). Link to Article

Herath, J. W. (1984). Geology and occurrence of gems in Sri Lanka. The Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka12(2), 257-271. Link to Article


Mayala, L. P., Veiga, M. M., & Khorzoughi, M. B. (2016). Assessment of mine ventilation systems and air pollution impacts on artisanal tanzanite miners at Merelani, Tanzania. Journal of Cleaner Production116, 118-124. Link to Article

Schroeder, R. A. (2010). Tanzanite as conflict gem: Certifying a secure commodity chain in Tanzania. Geoforum41(1), 56-65. Link to Article

Smith, N. M. (2016). “No cow makes this sort of profit”: Capital, success, and Maasai gemstone traders in Tanzania. The Extractive Industries and Society3(2), 442-449. Link to Article